среда, 30 марта 2011 г.

Allied forces in northern Italy, May 1707 (Allied siege of Toulon, part I)

Allied forces in Northern Italy in May 1707 numbered 85 infantry battalions & 123 squadrons of cavalry, totaled ab. 55,000 (40,500 foot & 15,000 cavalry).
              
battalions
Squadrons
Austria
49
81
Savoy
16
22
Prussia
11
-
Hessen-Kassel
9
14
Palatinate
7
4
Saxe-Gotha
2
2

85
123

               They were divided into 3 armies (corps). The main under duke Victor Amadei II of Savoy consisted of 54 battalions (18 Austrian, 11 Prussian, 9 Piedmontese, 5 Palatines, 9 Hessian, 2 Saxe-Gotha) & 58 squadrons (31 Austrian, 5 Piedmontese, 4 Palatines, 14 Hessian, 4 Saxe-Gotha), totaled ab. 32,500. It invaded Provance & put Toulon under siege. Corps under G. de C. Visconti operated in Alps. It consisted of 17 battalions (8 Austrians, 7 Piedmontese, 2 Palatines) & 41 squadrons (25 Austrian, 16 Piedmontese). Corps under FZM W. Daun of 10 Austrian battalions & 25 squadrons advanced to Naples hold by Bourbons.
Allied army invaded Provance in July 1707 from: Boeri G.C. The army of the duchy of Savoy 1688-1713. P.16-17

понедельник, 28 марта 2011 г.

Allied siege of Toulon, 1707 (part 0, introduction)

Recently I completed a new article about allied siege of Toulon in 1707. It will be published in next 2 issues of the Russian military magazine “Voin”. Volume of the article is very limited, so many maps, BOs & relations are not published. I plan to place all of them here in my blog.
First of all about my sources. Main of them are:
Londe C. Histoire du siege de Toulon par le duc de Savoie. Toulon. 1834.
A letter from a Ministry of State at Turin to a General-officer, relating to the expedition to the Provence, and a siege of Thoulon. London. 1707.
The history of the siege of the Toulon with an account of the political reasons that moved Confederates to undertake it and of all that happened from the Duke of Savoy entering Provence, to the day that he marched out of it (Done from a French copy printed in Paris and dedicated to the French King). London. 1708.    
Also I used Prinz Eugen’s Feldzuge (Feldzuge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen. Spanischer Successions-Krieg. Feldzung 1707. Band IX. Wien, 1883.), Pelet & Voult (Pelet J. Voult F. Mémoires militaires relatifs à la succession d'Espagne sous Louis XIV. Paris, 1842. Tome VII.) & some other sources
I will be very pleased if you let me know about any additional sources on the topic.

суббота, 26 марта 2011 г.

Saxon attack of Dunamunde on March 11 (12) / 23, 1700

By the mid of February 1700 Saxons concentrated in Courland 3 infantry (1 Garde, Konigin, Bornstadt) & 4 dragoon (Weissenfels, Flemmimg, Sanosth, Wolffenbuttel) regiments under command of GL Flemming. On Feb 11, 1700 they opened hostilities & without declaration of war marched into Swedish Livland. On 14 of February they took fort Kobrun on the left bank of Dune opposite Riga. Further operations against the city were limited because a lack of artillery. Flemming had only 6 3-pdr regimental cannons. On March 11 (12)/23 Saxons decided to attack Dunamunde, a fort on the cape between Dune & the sea. It was defended by a battalion of Nylands infanteriregimente under oversten G.W.v.Budberg (500 men). Saxon forces consisted of the 3 infantry regiments & Weissenfels dragoons under GM Karlowitz. The night attack was repulsed with heavy losses: 248 killed (incl Karlowitz) & 435 wounded (see details in relation below). But in 2 days Budberg agreed to capitulate on the terms of the free passage to Riga. Interesting moment: Schuster & Francke mentioned 143 Saxons killed & 435 wounded.
Saxon attack on Dunamunde, 23 Mar 1700 by Broce

Saxon relation is taken from Sachsen-Anhalt University collection. It was written on 14 (15)/26 of March after Swedish capitulation.    

пятница, 25 марта 2011 г.

Polish relation about Tzar Alexei Michailovich’s campaign against Lithuania in 1654

Colour of Osobiy Bolshoy Polk (Trubetskoy's army)
Знамя Особого Большого полка
This relation was written by Polish envoy Jan Mlocki who arrived to Moscow in spring 1654. He described Russian forces marched through Moscow on campaign against Poles in May-June 1654. His estimations of the Russian forces are speculative, but his relation gives us a lot of details about Russian army. Text is in Russian (sorry…)

Реляция о военном походе его царскаго величества Алексея  Михай­ловича в Литву против Польскаго короля Яна Казимира, 1654 г.
                                (Перевод с Польского)

Несмотря на обилие неточностей, в первую очередь в части численности русской армии, данная работа представляет собой ценное свидетельство очевидца выступления – польского посланника Яна Млоцского. Данный материал – ре-пост с моего старого сайта ODP с переработанными мною примечаниями (автор первого варианта – И. Бабулин)
Ист: Витебская старина. Т.4. Отд. 2. Витебск, 1885. С. 347-352.

Мая 10 дня, двинулся из столицы боярин Алексей Трубецкой, третий воевода, с несколькими пехотными полками1, одним полком кон­ницы (последние были покрыты железной броней на груди и сзади)2 и 27 ротами набора (wybrancow)3;  всех, двинувшихся с Трубецким из сто­лицы, было тысяч 10. К Трубецкому присоединились бояры и канцлер, князь И. Алексеевич Долгорукий4, с некоторыми дворянами. Было на что смотреть! Великий патриарх из своего дома, над улицею, на которой стоит Девичий монастырь, в Кремле (na zamku), велел построить галерею. Сам царь, стоя с патриархом на этой галерее, делал смотр проходив­шему мимо крыльца войску и тщательно (pilnie) напоминал оттуда боярам и офицерам о верной службе, а патриарх осенял проходящих крестом и окроплял их святою водою. Пред Трубецким несли дорогое пехотное знамя, при котором находилось 30 солдат, обязанных нести поочередно это развивавшееся белое знамя. На одной стороне знамени был изображен Спаситель, а на другой - Божия Матерь и ангел с оружием, который двумя перстами указывал вооруженному всаднику дорогу5. Как только народ заметил это знамя, то начал безпрестанно креститься и смотрел на него словно на какое чудо. Народ того мнения, что зна­мя это должно сотворить великие чудеса.

среда, 23 марта 2011 г.

Gosudarev Polk in the Smolensk campaign of 1654 (Государев полк в Смоленском походе 1654)

As I wrote once, Gosudarev Polk (Tzar's Own Corps) was the most privilege unit of the feudal mounted levy. It consisted of "sotnia"s (unit of about 100 men) raised from high-ranked & richest Moscow nobles & gentry. The Corps took the field only with Tzar. In the Smolensk campaign of 1654 it consisted of 15 "sotnia" of Moscow nobles & gentry, 17 "sotnia" of selected provincial gentry (so-called "zyltcy"), 20 "sotnia" of the provincial gentry. Also Gosudarev Polk included Rylskiy's Hussar regiment, A. Lesli, A. Gibson & K. Yander Foot, K. de Speville Dragoons
Source: Дворцовые разряды. т. 3. СПб, 1852, стлб 415-417

Majewski W. Bitwa warszawska 28-30 lipca 1656 r.

Below is a link to the article:
Majewski W. Bitwa warszawska 28-30 lipca 1656 r. // Z dziejow militarnych Pragi. Warszawa, 1998. S. 21-35.
CLICK TO DOWNLOAD
(link is updated on 03/04/2012)

среда, 16 марта 2011 г.

Lithuanian army, summer 1654

Below is the list of the Lithuanian field troops. It’s excluded garrisons.
Source is: Bobiatynski K. Od Smoleńska do Wilna: Wojna Rzeczypospolitej z Moskwa 1654-1655. Zabrze 2004. Pp. 233-236.
Komput armii Wielkiego Ksiestwa Litewskiego w kampanii letniej 1654 roku
Husaria, 3 choragwie, 364 koni
Pancerni kozaki, 26 choragwie, 2 424 koni
Tatari, 9 choragwie, 960 koni
Rajtaria, 7 choragwie, 1 020 koni
Dragonia, 3 regiments i 6 choragwie, 2 674 porcji
Piechota niemiecka, 2 regiments i 6 choragwie/kompania, 2 859 porcji
Piechota polska, 7 choragwie/kompania, 800 porcji
Total 11 211 koni I porcji

Choragwie
Koni/Porcii
Chorągwie husarskie

1
Janusza Radziwiłła
159
2
Aleksandra Hilarego Połubińskiego
122
3
Hrehorego Mirskiego, porucznik Hieronim Mirski
83
Chorągwie kozackie:

1
Janusza Radziwiłła, porucznik Aleksander Mierzeński
150
2
Jerzego Karola Hlebowicza, porucznik Samuel Kmicic
120
3
Bogusława Radziwiłła, porucznik Wołań (?)
120
4
Krzysztofa Potockiego, porucznik Jerzy Władysław Uhłik
100

пятница, 11 марта 2011 г.

Allied siege of Lille, 1708 (part II, French garrison)

In my previous post I placed allied BO for the siege of Lille. To find the French garrison was not an easy task. Here you can find the brief description of the siege
The part about French garrison is very short. Dutch sources counted 21 battalions 12 companies of invalids, 6 squadrons, 4 dragoon companies and 200 cavalrymen. Berwick in his Memoires (II, 15) mentioned that “I had placed there 23 battalions & 3 regiments of dragoons. Marshal Boufflers had shut himself up in the place with Lieutenant-Generals de Surville, de Trefeliere & de Lee”.  
Below is a list of Lille garrison from the History of Queen Anne Reign (7th Year, 82):
And list of troops from Pelet & Vault (VIII, 413):
The last one looks the most accurate.

среда, 9 марта 2011 г.

Russian Auxiliary Corps at Riga, summer 1701

According to paragraph 2 of the treaty signed with August the Strong at Birza (Birzen) on 26 Feb 1701 Peter the Great agreed to provide 15-20 000 of “good foot” with 2 regimental pieces per regiment for forthcoming campaign against Riga. Russian Auxiliary Corps under command of general Nikita Repnin consisted of 18 foot & 1 streltzy regiments, their exact strength at the start of campaign was 17 805 men. Troops left Novgorod on 4 May 1701 & in 3 columns marched to Kokenhausen, where arrived on June 20-25. There they were inspected by Saxon FM v. Steinau & GM Robel. Steinau wrote that “soldiers are of a good quality, armed with Lutich & Maastrich fusils, some regiments are with bayonets other with plug-in bayonets… officers are bad”. Below is a chart of the Russian regiments under Repnin from Marburg archive (http://www.digam.net/?dok=5754 ).     
Saxon-Russian military council on June 23 decided that the most part of Russian Corps would stay at Kokenhausen with one Saxon foot regiment to build new fortifications & 4 (Junger, Rydder & T. Treyden foot, Westov Streltzy) regiments under colonel Junger would march to the main Saxon army at Riga.
Proposed fortification around Kokenhausen
(Swedish Military Archive)
On July 6 Repnin got order from Steinau immediately go to Riga with 9 Russian (Gulitz, Bush, Werden, Deidute, Sweiden, Bukhowen, Bils, Kuper) & the Saxon foot regiments because of news about Carl XII’s approach. Repnin & Saxon general Robel delayed the march & left Kokenhausen on July 7. On July 8 Carl XII crossed Dune river & defeated Saxon army under Steinay. Repnin & Robel were late for the battle & joined Steinau on the night 8-9 of July. Jongor’s regiments also didn’t participate at the battle. They were at the retrenchments on Duna river & Duna’s islands & retreated as soon as got news about Steinau’s defeat. Jungor joined Repnin on July 10th. He reported that a part of his troops stayed in several retrenchments around Riga:
- Augustburg (ex Dunamunde) – 3 coys from Jongor regiment under lieutenant-colonel Shwart, 1 coy from Rydder foot, 1 coy of Treyden foot
-  Lutzelholm island: a coy from Jongor foot under captain Alferiy v. Shlippenbach (Heinrich, son of Emelian (Melchior IV) v. Shlippenbach, uncle of W.-A. v. Shlippenbach), 186 men, a coy from Treyden foot, captain Pazukhin, 102 men
- Shiff redoubt – 52 men
- Stern-schanze – 17 men    
On the night 8-9 of July Russians on Lutzelholm were attacked by 500-men detachment from Riga garrison under colonel V. v. Helmersen & lieutenant-colonel Wrangel (both were killed). Evidently they were supported by additional troops (even Carl XII came on the island). Russians refused to surrender. “The fight was very sharp on all sides, the enemy make the desperate defense… the King saved the lives of 20 Russians, which were the only once sparred” (Adlerfeld, I, 80).
Ruins of Kokenhausen by Broce
Meanwhile Russians & Saxons had a military council on 9 (10?) of July. Steinau said that he would retreat to Bausk & further in Courland. Repnin refused because he had an order from Tzar not to move far from Russian frontier. He marched to Kokenhausen where took 6 regiments stayed there. Russians & Saxons demolished Kokenhausen castle & fortification & then Repnin marched to Pskov where arrived on Aug 16th. That day his troops numbered 16 824 men (17 805 at the start of the campaign in May). About 300 were destroyed at Lutzelhom & about 400-500 were cut-off in the garrison of Dunamunde. So, non-combat losses were around 200-300 men.
Russians under lieutenant-colonel Shwart evidently capitulated with Dunamunde garrison on Dec 21, 1701 & then returned to Russia (Shwart again mentioned on service in 1702).

Regiment
# in Rabinovich
Strength on Aug 16 at Pskov
Notes
1
Abrakham, Yuri
114
925

2
Bils, Ilya
119
842

3
Bruce, Roman
136
771
Took regiment from Krogh just before the campaign
4
Bukhowen, Peter
137
873

5
Bush, Ivan
130
1046

6
Deidut, Alexei

893

7
Gulits, Kasper
129
916

8
Junger, Thomas
121
592

9
Kuper, Daniel
113
864

10
Mews, Ivan
118
954

11
Romanowski, Andrei
157
787

12
Rydder, Dennis
138 & 139
685
Combined from 2 foot regiments raised in Novgorod in 1700; by August Rydder took Strausburg’s regiment, replaced by lieutenant-colonel Christopher Abrakham
13
Saken, Ivan
117
981

14
Strausburg, Mikhail
120
1002
By August replaced by D. Rydder
15
Treyden, Ivan
116
1112

16
Treyden, Timothy
115
890
Died during the campaign, replaced by Andrew Schnewetc
17
Schweiden, Wilhelm
125
1024

18
Werden, Nicolai
131
907

19
Westov, Yuri

760
Pskov Streltzy


Русский вспомогательный корпус Репнина в рижской кампании 1701 г.
Согласно статье 2 Бирженского договора от 26 февраля 1701 Россия обязалась отправить весной 1701 на соединение с польско-саксонской армией к Динобургу «от 15 до 20 тысяч удобной и благообученной пехоты… добрым оружием и достаточными припасами… на каждый полк по 2 пушки полковые, а на каждою пушку по 200 выстрелов». /ПиБ-1, № 365, с. 436/. Полки должны были снабжаться провиантом за счет саксонцев, вопрос подчинения русских войск в договоре зафиксирован не был, и Репнин должен был «приватно» узнать у саксонцев, останутся ли русские отдельным корпусом, или будут распределены по саксонским отрядам. Самому Репину предписано было «быть с королевскими войсками за волонтера», и учиться у них военному делу.