вторник, 27 сентября 2011 г.

Russian "New model" colors of 1665


Reitar company standards, 1665
(drawing by V. Perederiy)
Рейтарские ротные знамена 1665

In the previous posts I described Russian colours made in 1654 for “New model” Foot & Reitar regiments. The colour/standard of the 1st coy was regimental. It was white & decorated with double-headed eagle. Other colours were colored & were decorated with various symbols (after colonel’s choice). All colours had Orthodox Cross at the top in the center. They could also have mottos. Reitar standards had a fringe & tassels. Colours of 1654 were made from expensive cloths & were embroidered with gold & silver.
During the War of 1654-67 Russian colours were simplified. A document of 1655 describes colours made for Foot, Reitar & Dragoon regiments of Belgorod Polk (one of the territorial Corps/military districts). They didn’t have any symbols or mottos. The only decorations were Orthodox Cross (moved to the right upper corner) & stars meaning the number of a coy. Silk clothes were changed to the cheap ones. Embroidery changes to an applique.  
Знамена белгородских полков 1665 года
Dragoon company colour, 1665
Ротное драгунское знамя, 1665
В предыдущих сообщениях я уже писал о знаменах, изготовленных в 1654 для солдатских и рейтарских полков. Каждая рота имело собственное знамя/штандарт. Знамя первой роты было полковым, и было белого цвета с изображением двуглавого орла. Ротные знамена были цветными (видимо один цвет на полк), и вместо орла несли геральдические символы по выбору полковника. Также на знаменах наверху по центру находился православный крест на голгофе. Знамена (и ротные и полковое) могли быть украшены  девизами. Рейтарские штандарты дополнительно имели шелковую бахрому и кисти на шнурах. Знамена изготавливались из дорогих тканей с золотым и серебряным шитьем.
Reitar company standard, 1665
Ротное рейтарское знамя 1665
В годы войны 1654-67 произошло существенное упрощение солдатских и рейтарских знамен. «Память» 1665 об изготовлении знамен для рейтарских, драгунских и солдатских полков Белгородского разряда фиксирует отказ от геральдических символов и девизов. Православный крест перекочевал из центра в верхний угол к древку. Единственным украшением стали звезды по номеру роты. Шелковые ткани были заменены на более дешевые. Данный документ интересен также описанием драгунских знамен, они отличались от солдатских наличием двух «косиц»/»хвостов». 
Foot company colour, 1665
солдатское ротное знамя, 1665

пятница, 23 сентября 2011 г.

Krassaw & Sapieha troops in Southern Poland, February 1709


“List of Crassaw’s troops marched from Prussia to Southern Poland from Goltz’s report dated 28 Feb 1709
  •           Bremiska dragonregementet (Crassaw), 1.000
  •           Verdiska dragonregementet (CG. Marschalk), 1.000
  •           Pommerska dragonregementet (WB. Muller), 800
  •           Pommerska kavalleriregementet (J. Mellin), 600
  •           Bremiska kavalleriregementet (mentioned as Horn’s but in fact C.G. Mellin), 600
  •           “Mounted French regiment”, 400 (1)
  •           Tarlo Foot, 600 (2)

Total 5.000
Marshalk & Muller losses from plague          600
Detached from Tarlo regiment         300
Total available in Krassaw’s Corps   4.000”

(1) No idea about the unit. Maybe a regiment on Polish service raised from Fraustadt deserters? 
(2) Evidently Polish regiment under Voevoda of Lublin Adam Tarlo command

Sapieha’s Lithuanian army after Russian reports consisted of 16 squadrons of dragoons & reitars, 56 choragwies of the national cavalry (mid of February 1709)
source: Письма и Бумаги Петра Великого. М., 1952. Т. 9, Ч. 2, с. 582

пятница, 16 сентября 2011 г.

Swedish colors taken at Lesnaya, 28 September 1708


# 1 Karelska Rytter, company standard
(drawing by D. Schorr)

Recent I found an article by Bolotina & Novoselov which includes a list of Swedish colours taken at Lesnaya. I compared them with data about colours from Hoglund’s book. Drawings are made by D. Schorr & used with his kind permission.
I don’t identify 3 units (## 15-17). Their names are given as in original text (see scan in Russian)
#
Regiment
Number
Description
Hoglund
Image
Reitars




1
Abo och Bjorneborgs (Lewenhaupt’s)
1
White embroidered with gold
(1)



1
Red embroidered with gold
(1)

2
Karelska
1
Red embroidered with gold
Red
#1
Dragoons




3
Skogh
1
White with fringe
White (2)



2
Light-blue with fringe
Blue (2)
# 2
4
(Wannerstedt)
2
Light-blue with fringe
Blue (3)

5
Schreitefeld
1
Blue
Blue
# 3 
6
Unknown
1
White with fringe


Infantry




7
Närke-Värmlands tremänningsregemente
(Stahl or Stael von Holstein)
1
White



4
Red
crimson red with the arms of Närke
# 4
8
Abo, Björneborgs och Nylands tremänningsregemeate
(Wrangel)
4
Blue
Blue with arms of lans (4)

9
Upplands tremänningsregemente
(Lewenhaupt)
1
White
white with the arms of Uppland
# 5


4
Red
red

10
De la Gardie
1
White
White



3
Cornflower blue with yellow
Quartered blue and yellow with decorations in gold (5)
# 6
11
Sacken
1
White
ND (6)



3
Blue
ND (6)

12
Björneborgs
(Stackelberg)
1
White
White



3
Yellow
blue and yellow (7)

13
Hälsinge (Knorring)
4
White with black
White with black (8)



1
Red with light-blue


14
Osterbottens (Fittinghof)
1
Light-blue
Blue (9)

15
“Vesterbotten” (unidentified)
1
Light-blue


16
“Aplendine” (unidentified)
1
Yellow with light-blue
(10)

17
“Buchwald” (unidentified)
3
Red with yellow


18
Unknown
1
White with cross


19
Unknown
1
White with Swedish coat of arms




49



# 2 Skogh Dragoons, company standard
(drawing by D. Schorr)
(1)    Hoglund writes that “Standards m/1686 were never issued to the regiment. Through Poltava the regiment carried those issued in 1684 (reconstruction) — feuille-morte field with lion, numbers, wreath, monogram and crown in gold, and palm branches in silver”. The regiment lost at least one company colour of m/1684 at Erestfer. Evidently after 1701 it got a new set of colours. By the way, Abo Infantry had red colors.

вторник, 13 сентября 2011 г.

Russian Corps under GFML Goltz in Poland, December 1705 – September 1709


"Заднепровский" корпус (дивизия) фельдмаршал-лейтенанта Генриха Гольца в южной Польше, дек 1708-сент 1709
Commanding officer: GFML Henrich v.d. Goltz
GL Mikhail Golytzin, GM Alexander Gordon, GM Grigory Volkonskiy, GM Alexander Yakhontov, Brigadier Fedor Balk
Corps under GFML Goltz consisted of an Infantry (Goltz) & & Dragoon (volkonskiy) divisions.
Infantry (6): 
  • Voronezj (Воронежский), 
  • Chernigov (Черниговский), 
  • Velyikye Luky (Великолуцкий), 
  • Viatka (Вятский), 
  • Ryazan (Рязанский), 
  • Olonetc (Олонецкий)

Their actual strength in September 1709 was 755-971 men, so I assume that in December 1708 thier strength was close to the authorized 1,200 men. Each regiment had 2 3-pder regimental pieces.
Olonetc Foot was left in Kiev garrison. Later it was sent to Kamenniy Zaton
Converged grenadier battalion was created in spring 1709 of 5 coys (all regiments except Olonetc)
Dragoons (6)
  • Novgorod (Новгородский)
  • Astrakhan (Астраханский)
  • Perm (Пермский)
  • Pskov (Псковский)
  • Rostov (Ростовский)
  • Uglich (Угличский)

Their actual strength is unknown. As a rule Russian Dragoons after 1705 didn't have regimental artillery but some pieces could be attached to a cavalry Corps (brigade/division)
GM Volkonskiy & Novgorod Dragoons in spring 1709 joined Main army & participated in Poltava battle

пятница, 9 сентября 2011 г.

Drawing of Polish uhlans dated 1785

Site of Spanish Ministry of Culture contains an images of Polish unit named: "Uniforme de Ulanos o polaco a caballo para la guarnición de Viena en lugar del regimiento de Mecklenburgo" (click) dated 1785. Does anybody have any idea about this unit?

четверг, 8 сентября 2011 г.

GNW campaign 1706, part X: Swedish Main army at Blonia & Warszawa, 7 January 1706


King’s Main army gathered for a campaign around Warszawa at the beginning of January consisted of 5 Reiter, 4 Dragoon & 7 Foot regiments, totaled about 7,000 of Foot & 7,000 of Horse. Army had 40 cannons & 24 pontoons. Additionally King Stanislaw joined Swedes with 25 choragwies (17 Wallachian & 8 Polish, ab. 1,000-1,500).  
Reiter regiments (5): 
  • Livregementet till hast, 
  • Sodra Skanska, 
  • Ostgota, 
  • Vastgota, 
  • Upplands tremännings (Kruse),

Dragoons (4): 
  • Meierfelt, 
  • Taube, 
  • Ducker, 
  • Stenbock.

Foot (7), all regiments of 2 batts, except Guards of 4: 
  • Livgardet till fot, 
  • Dal, 
  • Uppland, 
  • Ostgota, 
  • Jonkoping, 
  • Kalmar, 
  • Pommerska varvade (Horn); 

Other troops: 
  • Drabanten, 
  • Enspannare company

Skaraborg Foot was left in Warszawa. The rest army on 7th January crossed Vistula via ice & marched to Hrodno. 

воскресенье, 4 сентября 2011 г.

French Mediterranean Fleet in Toulon in 1707 (Siege of Toulon 1707, part III)

List of the French Mediterranean Fleet in Toulon in 1707 from History of Queen Anna reign. 6 Year (1707). Other sources give another data: 16 ships of 1st rank, 8 of 2nd rank, 24 of 3rd rank,  6 of 4th, 4 frigates, 4 corvette, 13 fireships, 13 other ships. They were armed with 567 cooper & 3036 metal cannons. Additionally there were 11 galleys in Marseilles.    
Link to the List of French fleet in 1707