воскресенье, 29 июня 2014 г.

Hanoverian invasion in Mecklenburg. Action at Walsmuhlen on 5-6 March of 1719

Map of Walsmuhlen area & actions on the 5-6 of March, 1719
(1) - Mecklenburg troops pushed Wendt Dragoon from Parum
(2) - Tilly Foot attacked & destroyed de Lauer Foot at Walsmuhlen
(3) - Wendt Dragoons attacked Leibregiment zu Pferd at the crossing of Sude
(4) - Hanoverin cavalry under Bulow attacked Mecklenburg line at Walsmuhlen
Now is a next part about the campaign in Mecklenburg in 1719 (link). The location of the Mecklenburg troops in the end of February of 1719 was the following:
  • Leibregiment zu Pferde took posts at Hannover frontier
  • Russian foot regiments Tilly & Valinsky were at Crivitz & Hagenaw
  • Domitz – 2 coys of Kahlden & Landmiliz battalion Buggenhagen
  • To the north from Domitz - Zulow Foot (4 coys), Lilienstreng Dragoons & field artillery under overst Vick
  • Schwerin - 3 coys of Kahlden
  • Butzow - Landmiliz battalion Kohlans (4 coys)
  • Rostock - Flohr & Kraft Foot (each of 10 coys) & Vietinghoff Dragoons.
Hanoverians under General of cavalry Cuno Josua von Bulow (link) crossed Elba on 25 of February on the ice. On 3rd of March they came to Hagenaw & then turned north to cut Mecklenburg troops in the western part of Mecklenburg from Schwerin fortress. On 5th of March de Lauer Foot took Walsmuhlen on the right bank of the river Sude between Wittenburg & Schwerin. Wendt Dragoons were at Parum on the road between Wittenburg & Walsmuhlen. A company of captain Schulenburg from Belling Foot took a bridge at Rodemuhlen to the south from Walsmuhlen. Bulow’s head-quarter was at Gammelin. Schlutter & St. Laurent Cavalry were between Wittenburg & Rodemuhlen.
Meanwhile Mecklenburg general-major Curt Christoph von Schwerin gathered his troops at Wittenburg (Tilly & Valinsky Foot, Buggenhagen Landmiliz, 2 coys of Kahlden, Leibregiment zu Pferde, Lilienstreng Dragoons). He got an order from Hertzog Carl Leopold not to open the fire & show the resistance only in a case of a direct Hanoverian attack. In the evening of 5th of March Schwerin decided to march to Schwerin. Soon Mecklenburg troops arrived in Parum, where Wendt Dragoons stayed. The most of the regiment escaped but some officers were captured. Schwerin soon ordered to release them. He wrote in his relation that he could easily destroy & capture the whole Wendt’s regiment, but he had the order from his duke to avoid any hostilities with Hanoverians.
List of Hanoverian losses at Walsmuhlen
(source: Sichart's Geschichte... B. 2)
Then Mecklenburg troops continued its night march to Walsmuhlen. The Tilly’s regiment (Russian Jaroslaw Foot) was in vanguard. When it came to Walsmuhlen, it realized that the bridge was broken & de Lauer Foot took positions on the other bank of Sude river. Schwerin wrote that Hanoverians first opened the fire & killed one NCO & 4 soldiers of Tilly’s regiment. He decided to attack the enemy to open the road to Schwerin fortress. Russian grenadiers crossed the river on the ice under cover of two regimental pieces. Their attack was successful, de Lauer regiment lost about 120 men (incl. colonel, lieutenant-colonel & major – see details at the left) & 2 colours. Its remnants retreated to Rodemuhlen. Russians lost one captain & 25 other ranks killed. Number of wounded is unknown. But later 15 wounded soldiers died.
Mecklenburg troops quickly repaired the bridge & started the crossing. First was infantry, then Leibregiment zu Pferde, then a train. Lilienstreng Dragoon covered the march. When Leibregiment crossed the bridge, it was attacked by Wendt Dragoons. Colonel Welling company suffered the most, some troopers were captured. Schwerin himself led the counter-attack & repelled Hanoverians.
Meanwhile Bulow with 4 squadrons (Schlutter & St. Laurent Cavalry) marched to Rodemuhlen, where he met Wendt Dragoons. Then they crossed Sude river & marched north to Walsmuhlen. By that moment Mecklenburg troops had completed the crossing & took positions in the field to S-E from Walsmuhlen. Hanoverian attack was repelled by Valinsky Foot’s fire. It shoot 5 valleys, incl. 2 of case-shot. Two Valinsky’s regimental pieces also made 10 shots. Then Hanoverian cavalry had a charge with Lilienstreng Dragoon & Leibregiment & heavily suffered them. Bulow decided not to repeat an attack of Mecklenburg infantry & retreated to the south. Mecklenburg troops continued their march to Schwerin & arrived there the same day.   
Hanoverian losses in the actions at Walsmuhlen were about 220-230 killed & wounded & 2 colours. Mecklenburg troops lost about 100 men, half of them were Russians. Evidently there were also some minor skirmishes in Sude river area, because losses of Hanoverian Bulow Cavalry & Belling Foot & Mecklenburg Zulow Foot are mentioned, but they didn’t participate in the actions at Walsmuhlen.
P.S. Many thanks to Oleg Sholin for his assistance in the preparation of the post. 

Бой при Вальсмухлене, 22 февраля/6 марта 1719

Продолжу о кампании в Мекленбурге в феврале-марте 1719 г. (ссылка) В конце февраля дислокация мекленбуржских войск была следующая:
  • Вдаль ганноверской границы посты занял Leibregiment zu Pferde

суббота, 28 июня 2014 г.

Знамя тобольских служилых людей, 16-17 вв.

The colour of unidentified irregular unit from Tobolsk. The center is blue with white lion & unicorn, borders are red with black decorations.  

В дополнение к статье Бараховича о знаменах сибирских служилых людей (ссылка) решил выложить знамя, поступившее в Оружейную палату в 1827 году из Тобольска:

«мерю по древку 3 аршина, шириною 2 аршина 9 вершков. Середина знамени синяя холстинная; кругом вся пришита койма из белой холстины городками, а в средине вшиты из белой же холстине лев и единорог, готовые к бою; изображения разцвечены черною краскою; кругом всего знамени широкая койма, с трех сторон неопределенного цвета, а с четвертой красная, холстинная же; по койме с трех сторон написан черною краскою развод и травы и в четырех углах репья». Древко красное, навершие – гладкое железное копье. Кому принадлежало или когда было изготовлено – неизвестно. Съемка дореволюционная, поэтому качество только такое. 

воскресенье, 22 июня 2014 г.

Uniforms of the Reich Armee in 1734-35, part 8: Prussian Auxiliary Corps

CLICK TO ENLARGE
Prussia agreed to provide an Auxiliary Corps of 10,000 men on Rhine in 1734:
- Generalstab, 5
- Feld-Commissariat, 15
- 5 Infanterie regimenter (Finckernstein, Goltz, Flans, Glaubitz/Roeder, Jeetze), each of 1,575 men
- 3 Dragober regimenter (Cosel, Sonsfeld, Prinz Eugen von Anhalt-Dessau), each of 711 men in 5 squadrons
- Feld-Artillerie, 39 men with 2 3-pdr & 4 6-pdr cannons
- Train, 102 men
Corps commander was Generallieutnant Erhard Ernst von Roeder, second-in-command Generalmajor Prinzen Leopold Maximilian von Anhalt-Dessau.
CLICK TO ENLARGE
Data from Feldzuge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen. B. 19. Illustrations from Bleckwenn/Gudenus Reiter, Husaren und Grenadiere: Die uniformen der Kaiserlichen Armee am Rhein 1734.

понедельник, 16 июня 2014 г.

Saxon Trabanten Garde troops in 1693

Der Riesensaal des Dresdener Schlosses bei der Verleihung des Hosenbandordens an Kurfürst Johann Georg IV. von Sachsen 1693
by Johann Mock
CLICK TO ENLARGE
Trabanten der Leibgarde zu Ross, 1693 (a)
Kurfurst Johan Georg III, 1683 (b)
The paint by Johann Mock presents an award ceremony of the Order of the Garter to Kurfurst Johann Georg IV of Saxony in 1693. There were two corps of guards at that time in Saxony: Trabanten Leibgarde zu Fuss & Trabanten Leibgarde zu Ross. Both of them are presenting on the paint. Foot Guards are at the left door in red-blue. That time they numbered 26 men: 2 Rittmeisters & 24 Trabantens. They were divided into 2 parts/"changes" which held 9 posts inside the kurfurst's castle in Dresden (1-2 men per a post). Mounted Guards (in red with blue & gold - see illustration from Friedrich W. Die Uniformen der Kurfurstlich Sachsischen Armee 1683-1763) are at the right. They composed of 2 companies since April of 1693:

пятница, 13 июня 2014 г.

Siege of Kaiserwerth, 15 April - 18 June 1702


Allied Dutch & Prussian troops under Dutch Field-Marshal Walrad of Nassau-Saarbrucken approached to Kaiserwerth on 15 of April before the official opening of the hostilities between France & Holland. They opened siege works on 18 of April. French garrison under marquis de Blainville was of 6 battalions according to Pelet. French BO in the "Feldzuge des Prinzen Eugen Savoyen" (B. 4, S. 735) presents the following troops: Royal (3), La Chatre (1), Artois (1), Agenois (1). At the same there are 11 battalions on the page 526 of the same work. 
Plan der Belagerung von Kaiserswerth
durch die Alliierten, 1702 by A.F. Pauli
The plan presents Allied troops after 11 of June
(Hessichen Staatsarchiv Marburg, link)
"Feldzuge des Prinzen Eugen Savoyen" mentions that Nassau-Saarbrucken had 12 foot & 7 cavalry Dutch regiments & 10 foot & 6 cavalry Prussian regiments at the start of the siege. According to my data he had only 6 Dutch regiments: De Mattha Dragoons (4 sqns), van Erbach (2), Wiser (2), Cralingen (2), graf van Nysle (2), Nassau-Weilburg (2). De Mattha Dragoons were of 4 squadrons & were divided into two parts in BO, that's why they were counted twice. Dutch infantry (12 regiments of a single battalion): Rantzau, Weyne, Capol (Swiss), Morall, Waldau, Strathnaver van Sutherland (Scottish), Colyear van Portmore (Scottish), Lochman (Swiss), Wilcke, Carls, Nassau-Weilburg, Dedem.
According to Jany's "Geschichte..." Prussian troops were under General von Heiden command. "Feldzuge..." mentions Prinz Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau.
Prussian infantry (10 regiments, 12 battalions): Prinz Philipp (2), Prinz Albrecht (1), Prinz Christian Ludwig (2), Lottum (1), Anhalt-Dessau (1), Anhalt-Zerbst (1), Varenne (1), Schlabern dorff (1), Endow (1), Canitz (1)

среда, 11 июня 2014 г.

Hannover's Reichs Execution Corps in Mecklenburg, February-March 1719

I mentioned in the previous post that Reichshofrat's verdict about re-establishment in Mecklenburg was issued in October of 1717. The right of execution was given to the two old garants of Low Saxon Circle, Brunswick-Calenberg (Hannover) & Brunswick-Wolthenbuttel. That time there were about 30,000 of Russian soldiers in Pomerania, so nobody insisted on the implementation of the Reich's verdict. In winter of 1718-19 Russian troops left Pomerania & Poland, & it was a very bad news for Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Brunswick-Calenberg & Brunswick-Wolthenbuttel immediately raised a so-called "Reichs-Execution-Corps" of 7,000 of foot & 2,000 of cavalry with 6 cannons. The commander was Brunswick-Calenberg's General der Cavallerie Cuno Josua von Bulow.

вторник, 10 июня 2014 г.

Алексеев Ю.Г. Кампания 1502 г.

Продолжение цикла статей Ю.Г. Алексеева о малоисследованной войне и ее заключительном эпизоде – кампании 1502 и действиями в районе Пскова и Смоленска: Алексеев Ю.Г. Кампания 1502 г. – Последний акт большой войны // Древняя Русь. Основы медиевистики. № 2 (24) июнь 2006 г.

Кампания 1502.  

Стратегические успехи России в кампаниях 1500 г. (победа на Ведроше, овладение Чернигово-Северской землей) не привели к концу войны с Литвой. Борьба вступила в новую фазу. Союз Литвы с Ливонским Орденом и наследниками хана Ахмата, союз России с крымским ханом Менгли-Гиреем превратили русско-литовский конфликт в коалиционную войну с участием почти всех государств Восточной Европы. Театр войны растянулся от Финского залива до Азовского моря.
В условиях коалиционной войны задачи русского верховного главнокомандования (далее — ВГК) в лице великого князя и его военных советников значительно усложнялись — теперь приходилось действовать против разных противников на далеко отстоящих друг от друга самостоятельных операционных направлениях. Главной задачей стало определение основного противника и создание содействующей группировки войск на главном и второстепенных направлениях.

воскресенье, 8 июня 2014 г.

Mecklenburg army in March 1719

Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
In March of 1719 Mecklenburg was involved in a short military conflict with Hannover. I found a couple of interesting materials about it, & will place them here in the blog. I will start from a list of Mecklenburg troops.
Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin succeeded his brother Frederick William in 1713. He tried to establish absolutism in his dukedom, but it resulted in a conflict with local estates. Duke repressed them by force & even executed some of the leaders of resistance. His opponents asked Emperor to protect their rights & imperial legislation. In October of 1717 Reichshofrat (Court Council of the Holy Roman Empire) issued a verdict that the Duke would submit to all imperial decrees, return property confiscated from the nobles, re-established old rights of the estates & cancel new taxes. The right of execution was given to the Hannover & Brunswick-Wolthenbuttel.
Carl Leopold disagreed with the court decision hoping on Russian support & his own military forces. By the beginning of 1719 Mecklenburg army consisted of 3 Mecklenburg cavalry regiments (15 coys), 4 Mecklenburg foot regiments (6 batts), 2 Russian foot regiments on Mecklenburg service (4 batts) & 2 battalions of Land-Miliz.
The story with Russian regiments is very interesting. Duke Carl Leopold was married in 1716 to Catherine, a niece of the Peter the Great. Next year Russian Tzar agreed to provide 3,000 of Russian soldiers in Mecklenburg army to support his new relative in the internal conflict with local estates. They were Viatskiy & Yaroslavskiy Foot regiments. That time Russian foot regiments were of 8 fusilier coys only, their grenadier coys since 1708 were detached to form converged grenadier regiments. Grenadiers of Viatskiy & Yaroslavskiy regiments were in Campenhausen Grenadiers, which was in Baltic provinces in 1717. So, two grenadier companies were taken from Lacy Grenadiers which was in Pomerania that time. Finally Viatskiy & Yaroslavskiy regiments entered Mecklenburg service in April 1717 of one grenadier & 8 fusilier coys each (ab. 1,500 each). Russian officers were mostly from gentry. That time they kept lifelong military service to the Tzar. But when they entered Mecklenburg service, they realized that they could easily get retirement & officially return home in their estates. So, many Russian officers asked Karl Leopold to retire in 1717-19 & were replaced by German officers.  
Mecklenburg army, March 1719.
Troops & uniforms (from Hall R. Mecklenburg’s Military from 1650 to 1719. CD-room. 2003. P. 26-27).
Mecklenburg infantry uniforms, 1717-19
(From Hall R. Mecklenburg's Military from 1650 to 1719. 2003)
Generals: general-majors Curt Christoph von Schwerin & Detloff von Flohr, brigadiers Philipp Detloff von Kahlden & Waldow.
Cavalry:
·        Leibregiment zu Pferde under Brig. Waldow [1702/01], 5 companies, 400 men. Uniform: blue with blue facings.

воскресенье, 1 июня 2014 г.

Moscow Kremlin in 1800

Московский Кремль 1800Very interesting project presenting a reconstructed view of Moscow Kremlin around 1800. Dedicated to the fans of the Napoleonic era :).
http://mos-kreml.ru/stroj.html (link)